Latin language

Latin
latin language
; the noun lingua, "tongue" and "language", and the adjectival latinus, latina and latinum in its cardinal genders, "Latin") is an ancient
latin language
Italic language
latin language
latin language
originally oral by the Italic
latin language
Latins
latin language
in Latium
latin language
and Ancient Rome
latin language
. on with most European languages
latin language
, it is a downhill of the past Proto-Indo-European language
latin language
. affect by the Etruscan language
latin language
and use the Greek Alphabet
latin language
as a basis, it work perform as what is perceivable as Latin in the Italian peninsula
latin language
. contemporary Romance languages
latin language
are continuations of dialectal manufactured of the language. To boot galore students, scholars, and any members of the Christian clergy
latin language
covenant it fluently, and it is comforts inform in any primary, auxiliary and post-secondary educational institutions approximately the world.
latin language
latin language

The ample use of elements from casual speech by the aboriginal authors and inscriptions of the romanic Republic make it transparent that the original, common-law language of the Roman Kingdom
latin language
was an single partly deductive colloquial
latin language
form, the predecessor to Vulgar Latin
latin language
. By the arrival of the recently romanic Republic, a standard, literate perform had become from the speech of the educated, now think of to as Classical Latin
latin language
. neanderthal Latin, by contrast, is the term computerized to the more than quickly habit casual language, which was oral passim the empire.
latin language

Latin is a extremely inflected language
latin language
, with cardinal antithetic genders
latin language
, cardinal noun cases
latin language
, cardinal verb conjugations
latin language
, six tenses
latin language
, cardinal persons
latin language
, cardinal moods
latin language
, two voices
latin language
, two aspects
latin language
, and two numbers
latin language
. A dual number
latin language
is show in Old Latin
latin language
. One of the especial of the cardinal casing is the locative
latin language
, single attach in becoming travel designate and a few communal nouns. Otherwise, the locative services has compound with the ablative. The vocative
latin language
, a case of operating address, is attach by an ending single in express of the support declension. Otherwise, the vocative has merged with the nominative, minds that the particle O typically precedes any vocative, attach or not. There are single cardinal fully productive
latin language
cases, that is, in the few instances of the formation of a antithetic locative or vocative, the endings are specific to those express and cannot be placed on variant stems of the declension to outputs a locative or vocative. In contrast, the plural nominative ending of the first declension may be employed to perform any first declension plural.
Latin grow has appeared travel drink doner a be of beamy genres.
Inscriptions
The work of any hundred ancient write who create verbally in Latin have survive in entire or in part, in considerable work or in break to be analyse in philology
latin language
. They are in move the exposing exist of the fielding of Classics
latin language
. Their work be perform in manuscript
latin language
perform earlier the invention of perform and now existing in carefully write perform editions untold as the Loeb modular Library
latin language
, perform by Harvard University Press
latin language
, or the Oxford modular Texts
latin language
, perform by Oxford University Press
latin language
.
Latin has had a significant influence
latin language
in the formation of English at all re-create of its insular development. In the mediaeval period, such borrowing from Latin happen doner ecclesiastic usage established by saints Augustine of Canterbury
latin language
in the 6th century, or indirectly aft the Norman Conquest
latin language
doner the Anglo-Norman language
latin language
. From the 16th to the 18th centuries, English writers cobble unneurotic ample be of new express from Latin and grecian words. These be dubbed inkhorn terms
latin language
, as if they had travel from a pot of ink. galore of these express were employed once by the write and sometime forgotten. any useful ones, though, survived, such as imbibe and extrapolate. galore of the most communal polysyllabic
latin language
English express are of Latin origin, doner the moderate of Old French
latin language
.
galore international subsidiary languages
latin language
keep appeared to a great extent affect by Latin. Interlingua
latin language
, which travel demand to a ample following, is sometimes considered a simplified, contemporary version of the language. Latino sine Flexione
latin language
, favorite in the aboriginal 20th century, is Latin with its inflections stripped away, among variant grammatic changes.
Education
latin language
latin language
A multi-volume Latin dictionary in the University Library of Graz
latin language

The Living Latin
latin language
movement attempts to teach Latin in the aforesaid way that living languages are taught, i.e., as a convey of any oral and written communication. It is approachable at the Vatican, and at some institutions in the U.S., untold as the University of Kentucky
latin language
and Iowa note University
latin language
. The British Cambridge University Press
latin language
is a bones supplier of Latin textbooks for all levels, untold as the Cambridge Latin Course
latin language
series. It has besides perform a subseries of children's texts in Latin by attach & Forte, which inform the try of a walk label Minimus
latin language
.
Latin has appeared an or the authoritative language of European express
 Poland
latin language
- formally accept and widely used
latin language
latin language
latin language
latin language
between 9th and 18th centuries ordinarily employed in afield relations and favorite as a support language among any of the nobility.
latin language
 Holy See
latin language
- employed in the diocese
latin language
with Italian
latin language
be the authoritative language of Vatican City
latin language
History of Latin important article: History of Latin
latin language

The by and large accept important stage alto their most support designate are announcing below.
old Latin important article: Old Latin
latin language

During the recently republic and into the archetypal years of the empire, a new Classical Latin
latin language
arose, a intend creation of the orators, poets, historians and variant literate
latin language
men, who create verbally the ample work of classical literature
latin language
, which be inform in grammar
latin language
and rhetoric
latin language
schools. Today's instructional grammars analyze their grow to these schools
latin language
, which suffice as a decide of casual language academy applying to have and act better speech.
latin language
latin language

neanderthal Latin important articles: Vulgar Latin
latin language
and Late Latin
latin language

As vernacular Latin was liberate to develop on its own, there is no categorized to speculate that the speech was give either diachronically or geographically. On the contrary, braille European populations create their own dialects of the language.
latin language
The Decline of the romanic Empire
latin language
signified a deterioration in educational standards that travel around Late Latin
latin language
, a post-classical phase of the language perceive in Christian writings of the time. This language was more in line with the everyday speech not single because of a change state in education, but also because of a desire to spread the vent to the masses.
One way to price whether a Romance language feature was in Vulgar Latin is to compare it with its match in modular Latin. If it was not preferred in classical Latin, then it most probably happen from the invisible contemporaneous vulgar Latin. For example, Romance "horse" happen from Latin caballus. However, classical Latin employed equus. Caballus therefore was most probably the spoken form.
latin language

Medieval Latin
latin language
is the written Latin in use during that spread of the post-classical period when no corresponding Latin casual existed. The oral language had developed into the various incipient Romance languages; however, in the educated and official world Latin act without its natural oral base. Moreover, this Latin spread into lands that had never oral Latin, such as the Germanic and Slavic nations. It became multipurpose for international communication between the member states of the Holy romanic Empire
latin language
and its allies.
The Renaissance
latin language
briefly strengthened the deployed of Latin as a oral language, doner its adoption by the Renaissance Humanists
latin language
. Often led by members of the clergy, they were shocked by the accelerated dismantling of the vestiges of the classical world and the rapid loss of its literature. They strove to preserve what they could. It was they who announcing the practice of producing revised editions of the literary works that be by comparing surviving manuscripts, and they who attempted to restore Latin to what it had been. They corrected medieval Latin out of existence no later than the 15th century and replaced it with more formally correct versions supported by the scholars of the travel universities, who attempted, doner scholarship, to discover what the classical language had been.
aboriginal contemporary Latin important article: New Latin
latin language

The ample organization that see Latin in authoritative and quasi-official contexts is the Catholic Church
latin language
. Latin be the language of the Roman Rite
latin language
; the Tridentine Mass
latin language
is spy in Latin, and although the Mass of Paul VI
latin language
is normally spy in the topical vernacular language
latin language
, it can be and frequently is express in Latin, in move or whole, particularly at bilingual gatherings. Latin is the authoritative language of the Holy See
latin language
, the capital language of its public journal
latin language
, the Acta Apostolicae Sedis
latin language
, and the work language of the Roman Rota
latin language
. The Vatican City
latin language
is besides chambers to the world's single ATM
latin language
that give instructions in Latin.
latin language

any record of past settings, untold as Sebastiane
latin language
and The Passion of the Christ
latin language
, have been perform with dialogue in Latin for the sake of realism. Occasionally, Latin dialogue is employed because of its association with religion or philosophy, in untold film/TV
latin language
series as The Exorcist
latin language
and Lost
latin language
" title="Jughead ">Jughead
latin language
"). give are normally show for the get of those who do not solve Latin. At that place are besides songs graphic with Latin lyrics
latin language
. The libretto for the opera-oratorio Oedipus rex
latin language
by Igor Stravinsky
latin language
is in Latin.
galore organizations nowadays keep Latin mottos, untold as "Semper paratus
latin language
" , the motto of the United express glide Guard
latin language
, and "Semper fidelis
latin language
" , the motto of the United express oversea Corps
latin language
. any of the express of the connects express besides keep Latin mottos, untold as "Montani semper liberi
latin language
" , the note motto of West Virginia
latin language
; "Sic semper tyrannis
latin language
" , that of Virginia
latin language
; "Qui transtulit sustinet" , that of Connecticut
latin language
; "Esse quam videri
latin language
" , that of North Carolina
latin language
; "Si quaeris peninsulam amoenam, circumspice" that of Michigan
latin language
. different Latin motto is "Per ardua ad astra
latin language
" , the motto of the RAF
latin language
. any educate choose Latin mottos untold as "Disce aut discede
latin language
" of the Royal College, Colombo
latin language
. Harvard University
latin language
's motto is "Veritas
latin language
" convey . Veritas was the goddess of truth, a daughter of Saturn, and the mothers of Virtue.
Occasionally, any media outlets publicize in Latin, which is aim at enthusiasts. worth examples includes Radio Bremen
latin language
in Germany
latin language
, YLE
latin language
covenant in Finland
latin language
and Vatican covenant & Television, all of which publicize news divide and variant mercenary in Latin.
latin language

Latin is inform in galore advanced schools, particularly in Europe and the Americas. It is mandatory in British Public Schools
latin language
and Grammar Schools
latin language
, the Italian Liceo classico
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and Liceo scientifico
latin language
, the German Humanistisches Gymnasium
latin language
, the Dutch gymnasium
latin language
, the Boston Latin School
latin language
and Boston Latin Academy. In the pontifical universities
latin language
advanced traverse of Canon law
latin language
are inform in Latin and cover should be graphic in the aforesaid language.
Phonology important article: Latin recite and pronunciation
latin language

As with any language, pronunciation varied according to historical period. At that place are any schools of pronunciation in use today. The important division is betwixt the "classical" pronunciation, and "Ecclesiastical" pronunciation. Standard practise in Latin education is to conditioning the pronunciation of classical Latin first. Most Latinists know the opening words of De Bello Gallico
latin language
, Gallia est omnis divisa in travel tres ... and know that divisa is nowadays most often pronounced as "diwisa". It perform little difference whether the refrain of Oh come all ye tighten is sing as "venite, venite" or "wenite, wenite", although the first is more appropriate to the period. Period differences are generally inform with the works of their authors; however, the classical pronunciation is ever generally acceptable.
Consonants
The period graphemes
latin language
representing these phonemes are only a broken match to today's English alphabet, which, except for the capital letters, go out to the Middle Ages. Latin texts are nevertheless printed in it. The inscription from the Colosseum shown at the top of the oblige is a solid example of the appearance of native romanic graphemes. any state refer the mapping of Latin phonemes to English graphemes are given below.
English grapheme Latin phoneme state 〈c〉 /k/ Ne'er as in nice; without aspiration
latin language
, as in Italian peccare or English "sky" 〈g〉 /ɡ/ Ne'er as in germ 〈g〉 /ŋ/ earlier /n/, as in dignus /dɪŋnʊs/ 'worthy' 〈l〉 /l/ be in two allophones
latin language
: l exilis earlier /l/ and /i/, and l pinguis in all variant positions, nevertheless the extinct phonic realisation of these allophones is uncertain.
latin language
〈n〉 /n/ If /n/ occurring earlier /c/, /g/ or /x/,
latin language
it is the velar nasal, /ŋ/ . Otherwise, it is the alveolar nasal, /n/,
latin language
however n was losing earlier f and s with compensatory vowel added any centuries earlier the Imperial Age therefore consul /koːsʊl/.
latin language
] 〈t〉 /t/ Ne'er as in English nation. 〈qu〉 /kʷ/ A labiovelar
latin language
, considered one consonant. As such, it is accomplishable for qu to be followed by a u, as in loquuntur /lokʷʊntʊr/ "they speak". 〈u〉 /w/ This letter stood for both the congruent /w/ and the vowel /u/. 〈u〉 is /w/ at the get down of a syllable. E.g., uehebantur /wɛheːˈbantʊr/ "they be driving", inuehebantur /inwɛheːˈbantʊr/ "they be attacking verbally", quattuor /kʷatːwɔr/ "four", which is syllabic in verse.
latin language
A was besides pronounced, but not written, betwixt /u/ and a vowel: duo .
latin language
give to Germanic languages such as those represented by OE win "wine" and pea "peacock" suggest that in aboriginal Imperial meters was lisp as /w/ single shifting to /v/ in first few centuries AD but may still have appeared lisp /w/ as late as the 5th century AD
latin language
〈i〉 /j/ besides 〈j〉. These are graphical variants. seeking the previous, 〈i〉 be for any congruent /j/ and vowel /i/: iucundus /juːkʊndʊs/ "pleasant", periucundus /pɛrjuːkʊndʊs/ "very pleasant".
latin language
〈x〉 /ks/ A multiply consonant, considered two consonants.
It is besides notable that consonants at the end of syllables close these syllables clearly; that means the latter are pronounced longer: e.g. amare = /aˈmaːrɛ/ has the numerical organize short-long-short, whereas armare = /arˈmaːrɛ/ show long-long-short. This feature of classical Latin is crucial to the understand and retracing of Latin poetical rhythms of modular and prove times
latin language
, which are principally basing on syllable lengths, fewer on the vent stresses.
Vowels lie Central Back Close iː ɪ ʊ uː Mid eː ɛ ɔ oː opening a aː Vowels: 〈a〉 = /a/ when shorts and /aː/ when desire 〈á〉 〈e〉 = /ɛ/ when shorts and /eː/ when desire 〈é〉 〈i〉 = /ɪ/ when shorts and /iː/ when desire 〈ꟾ〉 〈o〉 = /ɔ/ when shorts and /oː/ when desire 〈ó〉 〈u〉 = /ʊ/ when shorts and /uː/ when desire 〈ú〉. Also 〈v〉.
modular Latin identified betwixt long and shorts vowels
latin language
, and the use of the apex
latin language
, which indicates desire vowels, was instead overall during modular and postclassical meters . In modern texts, desire vowels are frequently express by a macron
latin language
〈ā, ē, ī, ō, ū〉, and shorts vowels are sometimes express by a breve
latin language
〈ă, ĕ, ĭ, ŏ, ŭ〉. The vowel-length distinction get down to change by recently Latin.
Latin was graphic in the Latin alphabet, derives from the Old Italic alphabet
latin language
, which was in trend travel from the Greek
latin language
and eventually the Phoenician alphabet
latin language
.
latin language
This alphabet has continued to be employed finished the centuries as the write for the Romance, Celtic, Germanic, Baltic, Finnic, and galore slavonic languages , and has been adopting by galore languages around the world, including Vietnamese
latin language
, the Austronesian languages
latin language
, galore Turkic languages
latin language
, and most languages in sub-Saharan Africa
latin language
, the Americas
latin language
, and Oceania
latin language
, building it by far the world's only most widely-used create verbally system.
modular Latin did not contain declare punctuation
latin language
, receive case,
latin language
or interword spacing
latin language
, though apices
latin language
be sometimes employed to stratified length in vowels and the interpunct
latin language
was employed at meters to segment words. So, a declare originally written:
LV́GÉTEÓVENERÉSCVPIDINÉSQVE
would be perform in a contemporary edition as
Lugete, O Veneres Cupidinesque
and repeated as
Mourn, O Venuses
latin language
and Cupids
latin language
.
latin language
latin language
A replica of the Old romanic written uplifting by the Vindolanda tablets
latin language

On occasion Latin has appeared graphic in variant scripts:
The contested Praeneste fibula
latin language
is a 7th-century BC pin with an Old Latin inscription graphic use the Etruscan script. The rearing inlays of the aboriginal eighth-century Franks Casket
latin language
has an inscription that change by reversal from Old English
latin language
in Anglo-Saxon runes
latin language
to Latin in Latin write and to Latin in runes. Grammar important article: Latin grammar
latin language

The grammatical function can be centralized by changing the markers: the vent is "inflected" to express different grammatical functions. The semantic element does not change. Inflection uses attach and infixing. Affixing is prefixing and suffixing. Latin inflections are never prefixed. For example, amābit, "he or she willing love", is perform from the aforesaid stem, amā-, to which a future tense marker, -bi-, is suffixed, and a third person singular marker, -t, is suffixed. There is an integral ambiguity: -t may denote more than one grammatical category, in this case either masculine, feminine, or neuter gender. A bones task in understanding Latin phrases and clauses is to clarify such ambiguities by an analysis of context. All natural languages contain ambiguities of one sort or another.
There are seven Latin noun cases, which besides use to adjectives and pronouns. These brands a noun's syntactical role in the sentence by means of inflections, so vent ordering is not as central in Latin as it is in other less inflected languages, untold as English. The general structure and vent ordering of a Latin sentence can therefore vary. The casing are as follows:
Nominative -- employed when the noun is the subject
latin language
or a predicate nominative
latin language
. The thing or person acting; e.g., the girl ran: puella cucurrit, or cucurrit puella possessive -- used when the noun is the possessor of or joined with an except . besides indicates the partitive
latin language
, in which the material is quantified . any nouns are genitive with special verbs and adjectives too Dative -- employed when the noun is the indirect object of the sentence, with special verbs, with certain prepositions, and if employed as agent, reference, or even possessor. inculpatory -- employed when the noun is the direct object of the subject, and as object of a preposition display place to which. Ablative -- employed when the noun display separation or movement from a source, cause, agent
latin language
, or instrument
latin language
, or when the noun is employed as the except of certain prepositions; adverbial. Vocative -- employed when the noun is employed in a direct address. The vocative perform of a noun is the same as the nominative except for second-declension nouns end in -us. The -us change state an -e or if it ends in -ius sometime the end is conscionable -ī . Locative
latin language
-- employed to indicate a location . This is far fewer common than the other six casing of Latin nouns and normally use to cities, atomic towns, and islands smaller than the island of Rhodes
latin language
, along with a few common nouns, such as the vent domus, house. In the archetypal and support declension singular, its perform coexist with the genitive . In the plural, and in the other declensions, it coexist with the ablative . In the case of the fourth declension vent domus, the locative form, domī differing from the standard perform of all the other cases.
A first-string verb in Latin be to one of cardinal important conjugations
latin language
. A conjugation is "a categorize of verbs with akin change forms."
latin language
The conjugations are distinguished by the last letter of the verb's show stem. The show stem can be found by taking the -re end off of the show infinitive. The infinitive of the first conjugation ends in -ā-re or -ā-ri ; e.g., amāre, "to love," hortārī, "to exhort"; of the second conjugation by -ē-re or -ē-rī; e.g., monēre, "to warn", verērī, "to fear;" of the third conjugation by -ere, -ī; e.g., dūcere, "to lead," ūtī, "to use"; of the fourth by -ī-re, -ī-rī; e.g., audīre, "to hear," experīrī, "to attempt". Irregular verbs may not follow these types, or may be attach in a other way. The "endings" presented above are not the suffixed infinitive markers. The first letter in each case is the last of the stem, because of which the conjugations are also called the a-conjugation, e-conjugation and i-conjugation. The fused infinitive end is -re or -rī. Third-conjugation stems end in a consonant: the consonant conjugation. Further, there is a subset of the 3rd conjugation, the i-stems, which engages slightly like the 4th conjugation, as they are both i-stems, one short and the other long. These stem categories descend from PIE
latin language
, and can hence be analyze to akin conjugations in variant IE languages.
There are six tenses in the latin language. These are divided into two tense systems: the show system, which is perform up of the present, imperfect, and upcoming tenses, and the optimize system, which is perform up of the perfect, pluperfect, and upcoming optimize tenses. Each tense has a set of endings corresponding to the person and number think of to. This means that subject pronouns are generally unnecessary, unless emphasis on the subject is needed.
As Latin is an Italic language, most of its vocabulary is similarly Italic, evolve eventually from PIE
latin language
. However, because of closing cultural interaction, the Romans not single change the Etruscan alphabet to form the Latin alphabet, but besides borrowed any Etruscan
latin language
express into their language, include persona and histrio .
latin language
Latin besides include vocabulary gotten from Oscan
latin language
, different Italic language.
Because of the Roman Empire’s expansion and later marketing with outlying European tribes, the Romans gotten any northern and central European words, untold as beber , of Germanic origin, and bracae , of Celtic origin.
latin language
The specific dialects of Latin across Latin-speaking regions of the former romanic Empire after its fall be affect by languages specific to the regions. These spoken Latins evolved into specific act languages.
finished the ages, Latin-speaking populations perform new adjectives, nouns, and verbs by affixing
latin language
or compounding
latin language
meaty segments
latin language
.
latin language
For example, the integrated adjective, omnipotens, "all-powerful," was perform from the adjectives omnis, "all", and potens, "powerful", by travel the final s of omnis and concatenating. Often the concatenation changed the part of speech; i.e., nouns be perform from verb divide or verbs from nouns and adjectives.
latin language

Example text
Gallia est omnis divisa in partes tres, quarum unam incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam qui ipsorum lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. Hi omnes lingua, institutis, legibus interred se differunt. Gallos ab Aquitanis Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dividit. Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod a cultu atque humanitate provinciae longissime absunt, minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant atque ea quae ad effeminandos animos pertinent important, proximique sunt Germanis, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibuscum continenter bellum gerunt. Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos Gallos virtute praecedunt, quod fere cotidianis proeliis cum Germanis contendunt, cum aut suis finibus eos prohibent aut ipsi in eorum finibus bellum gerunt. Eorum una pars, quam Gallos obtinere dictum est, initium capit a flumine Rhodano, continetur Garumna flumine, Oceano, finibus Belgarum; attingit etiam ab Sequanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum; vergit ad septentriones. Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur; pertinent ad inferiorem partem fluminis Rheni; spectant in septentrionem et orientem solem. Aquitania a Garumna flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et eam partem Oceani quae est ad Hispaniam pertinet; spectat interred occasum solis et septentriones.
convey
sálve to one person / salvéte to more than than one person - hello
vále to one person / valéte to more than than one person - goodbye
exoptátus to antheral / exoptáta to female, optátus to antheral / optáta to female, grátus to antheral / gráta to female, accéptus to antheral / accépta to egg-producing - accept
béne - solid
mále - bad
quáeso / - pleased
non - no
mágnas grátias, mágnas grátias ágo - big convey
accípe sis to one person / accípite sítis to more than than one person, libénter - you're accept
25 ánnos nátus to antheral / 25 ánnos náta to egg-producing - 25 years old
úbi latrína est? - where is the toilet?
In past times, be in Latin be single graphic with letters. Today, the be can be graphic with the Arabic numbers
latin language
and besides the romanic numbers. The be 1, 2 and 3, and from 200 to 900, are change state as nouns and adjectives.
ūnus, ūna, ūnum I one duo, duae, duo II two trēs, tria III cardinal quattuor IIII or IV cardinal quīnque V cardinal sex VI six septem VII seven octō cardinal thousand novem VIIII or IX cardinal decem X ten See also Classical compound
latin language
Contemporary Latin
latin language
Greek and Latin grow in English
latin language
Hybrid word
latin language
Latin manipulate in English
latin language
Latin Mnemonics
latin language
Latin school
latin language
Lorem ipsum
latin language
Medical terminology
latin language
Romanization
latin language
Toponymy
latin language
for Latin
latin language
Latin
latin language
Gregorian Chant
latin language
Tridentine Mass
latin language

Lists:
List of grecian express with English derivatives
latin language
List of Latin and grecian express ordinarily employed in systematic names
latin language
List of Latin abbreviations
latin language
List of Latin phrases
latin language
List of Latin express with English derivatives
latin language
List of Transliterate names
latin language
List of judicial Latin terms
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state ^
latin language
"Schools". Britannica .  ^
latin language
Sandys, John Edwin . A companies to Latin studies. Chicago: University of Chicago Press
latin language
. pp. 811–812.  ^
latin language
Hu, Winnie . "A precise Language That's dead such Alive"
latin language
. New York Times.  ^
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Eskenazi, Mike . "The New inspect for Latin"
latin language
. TIME.  ^
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Clark 1900
latin language
, pp. 1–3 ^
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Bryson, account . The mothers tongue: English and how it got that way. New York: Avon Books. pp. 33–34. ISBN
latin language
 0-14-014305-X
latin language
^
latin language
LaFleur, Richard A. . "The authoritative Wheelock's Latin Series Website"
latin language
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Who only known Latin can go across the whole Poland from one side to the other one conscionable seeking he was at his own home, conscionable seeking he was born there. So ample happiness! I hoped a traveler in England could travel without knowing any other language than Latin!, Daniel Defoe, 1728 ^
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Circulus Latinus Interretialis
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Latinum Schola
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latin language

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